Initial correlations ranging from market details and you will dad-man relationships quality revealed that father many years, degree, home money, and race/ethnicity were notably for the dad-boy matchmaking; therefore, such details was indeed entered into the structural picture activities because the control (bivariate correlations made available from earliest writer). Initial correlations among variables interesting conveyed adequate connectivity in order to guarantee further testing of hypothesized model (look for Table dos ).
Structural Formula Models
In the model testing associations between controls, father relationships with PGF, father involvement, and father-child relationship quality, multiple associations were significant. Father race/ethnicity was assessed via dummy coded variables (White vs. Black, Hispanic, and Other), and both Black and Hispanic fathers were significantly associated with father-child relationship quality. Children of Black and Hispanic fathers reported lower quality relationships relative to children of White fathers, ? = ?.11, p < .01 and ? = ?.06, p < .01, respectively; having the Other racial/ethnic background was not associated with father-child relationship quality. Fathers' age, ? = .05, p < .05, education level, ? = .08, p < .01, and household income, ? = .06, p < .05, also were positively associated with father-child relationship quality, such that older, more educated, and higher income fathers had children who reported higher father-child relationship quality at age 9.
Regarding the primary associations of interest, results of the model indicated that, when fathers reported at the time of their children’s births that PGF were more involved when the father was growing up, fathers also reported having better relationships with PGF at child age 1, ? = .49, p < .001. The association between PGF involvement during fathers’ childhood and father involvement with their own children at age 1 also was significant, ? = .06, p < .05, and fathers who reported better relationships with PGFs at child age 1 also concurrently were more involved with their own children at child age 1, ? = .08, p < .01.When fathers were more involved with their children at age 1, their children reported higher quality relationships with fathers at age 9, ? = .24, p < .001, and father involvement at age 1 fully mediated associations between father-PGF relationships and father-child relationship quality at age 9 (no significant direct associations existed in the model between PGF variables and father-child relationship quality). Thus, the study results support the hypothesis that greater PGF involvement during childhood is associated with higher-quality father-child relationships, and that these associations are mediated by current relationships between fathers and PGF and current father involvement with their own children at age 1. However, the proposed structural model only provided a marginal fit to the data, with ? 2 (122) = , p < .05; CFI = .88; and RMSEA = .08. Overall, this model explained 11% of the variation in age 9 father-child relationship quality (see Figure 2 ).
Fathers’ citizen standing are tested since the a great moderator, first comparing fathers who have been constantly nonresident over the nine years in order to dads who have been citizen at the least a portion of the time (e.g., citizen within Birth, but not at the many years step one, otherwise nonresident at Beginning, however, resident from the age 1 and you can ages nine). The fresh new designs didn’t differ because of the resident standing, ?? 2 (7) = 12.4, ns. Next, i compared consistently resident dads that have consistently nonresident fathers and you can fathers who had been resident during one or apex more trend of information range; these models plus didn’t differ because of the citizen updates, ?? dos (12) = , ns.
The outcomes centered on investigation regarding the fathers and kids out-of the fresh new Delicate Household and Guy Really-Being Research support the fresh theory one a dad’s connection with the fresh new PGF plus PGF engagement inside the father’s youth manage bring about high father-child relationships quality. The present day study contributes to the explanation ones matchmaking by the proving this particular path are completely mediated by father’s engagement in early several years of the latest kid’s lives. Early wedding of your own PGF in the dad’s youthfulness is related on the matchmaking top quality involving the PGF in addition to dad at the latest beginning of the child. Both PGF prior to engagement when you look at the father’s youthfulness while the newest quality of the fresh new PGF-dad relationship in the event the boy was one year dated predict new father’s level of involvement at the ages 1 of the kid’s lives, which in turn is actually in the child account off father-kid relationship high quality in the event that man try nine years of age.